[TOEIC GRAMMAR] Topic 4: Pronouns

WHAT IS A PRONOUN?

Words used to replace nouns or names in order to avoid repetition are called pronouns.

Ex : I like my uncle because he is knowledgeable.

” He” is used to avoid the repetition of my uncle.

Types of Pronouns

Types of pronouns

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

  • Personal pronouns refer to “grammatical persons” showing specific person or thing by using words such as he, him, she, her, you,etc.
  • Personal pronouns vary in form depending on their function in a sentence.
  • Personal pronouns used as subjects are subjective pronouns;
  • Personal pronouns used as objects are objective pronouns
  • Ex:
    • You should contact him for your question

“him” is objective pronouns

Position of personal pronouns

  • A subjective pronoun comes in the position of subject
  • An objective pronoun comes in the position of an object
  • Ex:
    • Subjective pronoun:     She/ opened / a new bank account.
    • Objective pronoun:       The host / showed / me/ the living room

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

  • Possessive pronouns are used to substitute a group of words that are indicating  a possession relation.
  • Ex
    • This/ is/ your/ disk/ and / that/ is / mine
      • “ mine “ is possessive pronoun
    • Theirs/ will be delivered / tomorrow.
      • “Theirs” is possessive pronoun
possessive pronouns

  • Possessive pronouns are used to replace possessive adjective + noun
  • Possessive pronouns can function as subjects, objects, or complements.
    • My room/ has/ one window. Hers / has / two
      • Hers =Subject =  her room  ( possessive adjective + noun)
    • The boss/ disliked / her idea. He / like / mine
      • Mine = object = my idea
    • This food is ours, not theirs.
      • Ours = Complement = our food
      • Theirs = Complement = their food

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

  • We use reflexive pronouns to indicate that the person who realizes the action of the verb is the same person who receives the action.
  • Example
    • I/ cut/ my hair/ myself
    • We/ defended / ourselves/ brilliantly

Myself and ourselves are reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouons

Subject = object

Bob/ introduced/ himself/ to a new employee.

Emphasis

We/ ourselves / must take precautions / against fire.

By + reflexive pronoun

I / spent/ the whole weekend/ by myself.

  • A reflexive pronoun is used as the object of a verb or of a preposition when the subject and object of the sentence refer to the same person.
  • A reflexive pronoun can immediately follow a noun/pronoun or come at the end of a clause in order to emphasize the meaning of the previous noun, pronoun or clause.
  • The expression by + reflexive pronoun means alone

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

  • A demonstrative pronouns refers to or identifies a noun or a pronoun.
  • This/these refers to (a) thing(s) or person(s) that is/are near the speaker, whereas that/those refers to farther thing(s) or person(s).
    • Ex : This/ is / my desk
    • Those / are/ expensive
  • The demonstrative pronouns that and those are used to avoid the repetition of nouns in comparison structures.
    • Use that if a noun is singular; otherwise, use those.
    • That:
      • Our price/ is lower/ than that of other shops.
        • That= price
    • Those:
      • This week’s reviews/ are better/ than those of last week.
        • Those = reviews
  • Note

When this/these and that/those come before nouns, they functions as demonstrative adjectives.

This+ singular noun:     This CD player/ in/ under warranty.

That + singular noun:    That bridge/ shows / signs of wear. ‘

These+ plural noun:       These clothes/ are made of/ silk

Those+ plural noun:       Those watches/ are/ well designed items.

INDENFINITE PRONOUNS

  • Indefinite pronouns are those that are used when the speaker does not refer to a particular person or thing, for example: somebody, something
  • Example
    • Both/ are/ nice
    • He/ checked / each of the reports

Indenfinite pronouns – Some/any

  • Used to refer to an indefinite number or amount
  • Can be combined with –thing or –one/-body to refer to an indefinite object or person.
  • Some is mainly used in affirmatives;
  • Any is used in negatives and questions.
  • Example :
    • Affirmative
      • The printer/ has/ something wrong.
    • Negative
      • I/ have not read / any of these books.

The other/ another/ others/ the others

  • The other means the remaining out of the two mentioned.
    • John/bought/ two shirts./ One/ is/ black, the other / is / white.
  • Another means one more among those mentioned.
  • Other means some more among those mentioned.
    • The organization/ has/ many supporters. / One is / in LA, another/ is/ in New York, and others/ are/ in Chicago.
  • The others means all the remaining of the group mentioned
    • Mr.Smith / met/ five clients. One/ is Japanese, another/ is/ French, and / the others/ are Chiniese. •

AGREEMENT BETWEEN PRONOUNS AND NOUNS

Agreement between pronouns and nouns in terms of number

  • If a noun is in the singular from, its pronoun should be in the singular form;
  • It a noun is in the plural form , its pronoun should be in the plural form.
  • Example.
    • The company/ held/ a party. /It/ celebrated / the 20th anniversary.
    • The employees / participated in / the time management seminar. / They wanted / to use their time/ more efficiently at work.

Agreement between pronouns and nouns in terms of gender

  • If  a noun has the masculine gender, its pronoun should be masculine ( he, him, his, himself);
  • If a noun is feminine, its pronoun should be feminine (she, her, hers, herself)
  • Besides, if a noun is neither male nor female, its pronoun should be it or itself.
    • Mr.Hart/ was invited / to the reception. He/ arrived / on time
    • Susan/ received/ an award/ from her boss. She/gave/a speech of thanks.
    • The corporation/ proved/itself/to be the best. It/met/the client’s demands.

LET’S PRACTICE : PRONOUNS

1. Question from 1 to 10 refer to the grammar about Personal pronouns, possessive pronouns and Rsflexive pornouns

  1. ________ are planning to go on vacation next Friday.
 
 

2. Mr.Ford was late for ___________ physical examination.

 
 

3. We would like to read the book’s reviews before we write___________.

 
 

4. Alice assisted ______ in developing public speaking skills.

 
 

5. The employees dealt with the problem by ________.

 
 

6. Nurses must check on ________patients frequently.

 
 

7. Companies should examine the enviromental effects of ______ activities .

 
 
 
 

8. Writers have produced extraodinary work in conditions more oppressive than _______.

 
 
 
 

9. _______may order any necessary office supplies from the catalog.

 
 
 
 

10. At the meeting, the manager announced that she would prepare the presentation by _________.

 
 
 
 

11. Question from 11 to 20 refer to Demonstrative Pronouns

_______ analysts predicted slower economic growth.

 
 

12. There are twenty new articles on ________list.

 
 

13. Dick’s porfolio is better than _______ of Lisa’s

 
 

14. _________ editor got an award last year.

 
 

15. These results are inconsistent with ________ of previous studies.

 
 

16. ______revisions are important to the completion of the proposal.

 
 

17. HT’s sports bags differ from _____ of Star track in price and quality.

 
 
 
 

18. Our company inplemented a program of structural reforms, but _________ plan was unsuccessful.

 
 
 
 

19. Our line of designer clothing is more expensive than _____ of our competitors.

 
 
 
 

20. _________salesman sold her an additional water purifier for two hundred dollars.

 
 
 
 

21. Question from 21 to 30 refer to indefinite Pronouns

Some proposales got support from the board, but _____________did not.

 
 

22. There are three CVs of the applicants. One is here. Where are _________?

 
 

23. Most English legal terms are difficult to translate into Vietnamese, but _____ of them are essy to translate into English.

 
 

24. One worker prefers morning meetings , while ________ favors afternoon sessions.

 
 

25. One report was excellent, but _______were unsatisfactory .

 
 

26. This is not the only answer to the question. There are ________.

 
 

27. The interviewer learned that Mr.Sherman had _______of the materials in advertising and PR.

 
 
 
 

28. As a result of building renovations, our office have been moved from one floor to ______.

 
 
 
 

29. The IT department supports outsourcing but _______ oppose the idea.

 
 
 
 

30. The bankrupt Build Co did not have ___________ of the management skills.

 
 
 
 

31. Question from 31 to 38 refer to agreement between Pronouns and Nouns

Ms.Peck is the departement head. _______ is announcing the new office procedures to the team.

 
 

32. Many subscribers have renewed their magazine subcriptions. ________ have read this magazine for years.

 
 

33. The writer received the comments and _______ will reply to them.

 
 

34. Mr.Vega and Mr.Rios will speak to the client. _________ want to meet his demands.

 
 

35. Mr.White worked so much overtime that ______ asked management for a salary increase.

 

 
 
 
 

36. Company representatives spend the whole day answering phones and e-mails. _______ are always busy at work.

 
 
 
 

37. Question 37 and 38 refer to the following e-mail

The selecion committee recently interviewed a number of candidates for the senior accountant position. of those, we feel that Joseph Scott is the best. His accomplishments at his former company stand out from (37)_________ of the other candidates. Joseph Scott is not only skilled in finacial analysis, but is also an excellent writer. This will be a great asset for us. We understand that you want to have a chat with ______( 38) before we make a final decission. Please let us know when it would be convenient for you to meet Mr.Scott.

 
 
 
 

38. Question 37 and 38 refer to the following e-mail

The selecion committee recently interviewed a number of candidates for the senior accountant position. of those, we feel that Joseph Scott is the best. His accomplishments at his former company stand out from (37)_________ of the other candidates. Joseph Scott is not only skilled in finacial analysis, but is also an excellent writer. This will be a great asset for us. We understand that you want to have a chat with ______( 38) before we make a final decission. Please let us know when it would be convenient for you to meet Mr.Scott.

 
 
 
 

Question 1 of 38

List of Toeic grammar

Hãy giúp mình chia sẻ bài viết nếu thấy hữu ích nhé !

Bài viết được đề xuất

Leave a Reply

avatar
  Subscribe  
Notify of